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Gönderen Konu: Pyramids of Egypt (Including Video)  (Okunma sayısı 11939 defa)

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Kasım 12, 2006, 02:54:09 ös
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Egyptian pyramids

The pyramids of Egypt, among the largest constructions ever built by man, constitute one of the most potent and enduring symbols of Ancient Egyptian civilization. It is generally accepted by most archaeologists that they were constructed as burial monuments associated with royal solar and stellar cults, and most were built during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.

The 7000 years old building The Pyramids Of Giza

The Great Sphinx of Giza with Khafre's pyramid in the background

Pyramid sites
Map of Giza pyramid complex.The number of pyramid structures in Egypt today is reported by most sources as being between 80 and 110, with a majority favouring the higher number. In 1842 Lepsius made a list of pyramids, in which he counted 67, although more have been identified and discovered since his time the imprecise nature of the count appears related to the fact that as many smaller pyramids are in a poor state of preservation and appear as little more than mounds of rubble, they are only now being properly identified and studied by archaeologists. Most are grouped in a number of pyramid fields, the most important of which are listed geographically, from north to south, below.

Map of Giza pyramid complex

Abu Rawash

Abu Rawash is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid other than the ruins of Lepsius pyramid number one— the mostly ruined Pyramid of Djedefre, the son and successor of Khufu. Originally it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current archaeological consensus is that not only was it completed, but that it was originally about the same size as the Pyramid of Menkaure — the third largest of the Giza pyramids. On this basis Djedefre's edifice would have claimed the title of the fourth or fifth largest pyramid in Egypt.

Unfortunately its location adjacent to a major crossroads made it an easy source of stone, and quarrying — which began in Roman times — continued until as recently as the early 20th century. Today little remains apart from a few courses of stone superimposed upon the natural hillock that formed part of the pyramid's core — although a small adjacent satellite pyramid is in a better state of preservation.


Of the three, only Khafre's pyramid retains part of its original polished limestone casing, towards its apex. Interestingly this pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, and the steeper angle of inclination of its construction — it is, in fact, smaller in both height and volume.

The Giza Necropolis has arguably been the world's most popular tourist destination since antiquity, and was popularised in Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Today it is the only one of the ancient Wonders still in existence.


Zawyet el-Aryan

This site, half way between Giza and Abu Sir, is the location for two unfinished Old Kingdom pyramids. The northern structure's owner is believed to be the Pharaoh Nebka, whilst the southern structure is attributed to the Third Dynasty Pharaoh Khaba, also known as Hudjefa, successor to Sekhemkhet). Khaba's four-year tenure as pharaoh more than likely explains the similar premature truncation of his step pyramid. Today it is approximately twenty metres in height; had it been completed, it would probably have more than doubled in size.

Abu Sir

There are a total of seven pyramids at this site, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Dynasty. The quality of construction of the Abu Sir pyramids is inferior to those of the Fourth Dynasty — perhaps signalling a decrease in royal power or a less vibrant economy. They are smaller than their predecessors, and are built of low quality local limestone.

The three major pyramids are those of Niuserre (which is also the most intact), Neferirkare Kakai and Sahure. The site is also home to the incomplete Pyramid of Neferefre. All of the major pyramids at Abu Sir were built as step pyramids, although the largest of them — the Pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai — is believed to have originally been built as a step pyramid some seventy metres in height and then later transformed into a "true" pyramid by having its steps filled in with loose masonry.

Major pyramids here include the Step Pyramid of Djozer — Egypt's oldest stone monumental building — the Pyramid of Userkaf and the Pyramid of Teti. Also at Saqqara is the Pyramid of Unas, which retains a pyramid causeway that is amongst the best-preserved in Egypt. This pyramid was also the subject of one of antiquities' earliest restoration attempts, conducted under the auspices of one of the sons of Ramesses II. Saqqara is also the location of the incomplete step pyramid of Djozer's successor Sekhemkhet, known as the Buried Pyramid. Archaeologists believe that had this pyramid been completed it would have been larger than Djozer's.

The Step Pyramid of Djozer


This area is arguably the most important pyramid field in Egypt outside Giza and Saqqara, although until 1996 the site was inaccessible due to its location within a military base, and hence was virtually unknown outside archaeological circles.

The southern Pyramid of Sneferu, commonly known as the Bent Pyramid is believed to be the first (or by some accounts, second) attempt at creating a pyramid with smooth sides. In this it was only a partial — but nonetheless visually arresting — success; it remains the only Egyptian pyramid to retain a significant proportion of its original limestone casing, and serves as the best example of the luminous appearance common to all pyramids in their original state.

The northern, or Red Pyramid built at the same location by Sneferu was later successfully completed as the world's first true smooth-sided pyramid. Despite its relative obscurity, the Red Pyramid is actually the third largest pyramid in Egypt — after the pyramids of Khufu and Khafre at Giza. Also at Dahshur is the pyramid known as the Black Pyramid of Amenemhet III.


Located to the south of Dahshur, this area was used in the First Intermediate Period by several kings who constructed their pyramids out of mudbrick. Today these structures are obscure and unimpressive.


Two major pyramids are known to have been built at Lisht — those of Amenemhat I and his son, Senusret I. The latter is surrounded by the ruins of ten smaller subsidiary pyramids. The site which is in the vicinity of the oasis of Fayyum, midway between Dahshur and Meidum, and about 100 kilometres south of Cairo, is believed to be in the vicinity of the ancient city of Itjtawy (the precise location of which remains unknown), which served as the capital of Egypt during the 12th Dynasty.

The ruined Pyramid of Amenemhet I at Lisht


Sneferu's Pyramid at Meidum; the central core structure remains, surrounded by a mountain of rubble from the collapsed outer casingThe pyramid at Meidum is one of three constructed during the reign of Sneferu, and is believed by some to have been commenced by that pharaoh's father and predecessor, Huni. However, this is not very likely, as his name does not appear on the site. Some archaeologists also suggest that the Meidum pyramid may have been the first unsuccessful attempt at the construction of a "true" or smooth-sided pyramid.

The pyramid suffered a catastrophic collapse in antiquity, and today only the central parts of its stepped inner core remain standing, giving it an odd tower-like appearance that is unique among Egyptian pyramids. The hill that the pyramid sits atop is not a natural landscape feature — it is in fact the small mountain of debris created when the lower courses and outer casing of the pyramid gave way.

Sneferu's Pyramid at Meidum; the central core structure remains, surrounded by a mountain of rubble from the collapsed outer casing


The Pyramid of Amenemhet III at HawarraAmenemhet III was the last powerful ruler of the 12th Dynasty, and the pyramid he built at Hawarra, near Faiyum, is believed to post-date the so-called "Black Pyramid" built by the same ruler at Dahshur. It is the Hawarra pyramid that is believed to have been Amenemhet's final resting place.

The Pyramid of Amenemhet III at Hawarra

The Pyramid of Senusret II. The pyramid's natural limestone core is clearly visible as the yellow stratum at its base.The pyramid of Senusret II at el-Lahun is the southernmost royal-tomb pyramid structure in Egypt. Its builders reduced the amount of work necessary to construct it by ingeniously using as its foundation and core a 12 metre high natural limestone hill.

The Pyramid of Senusret II. The pyramid's natural limestone core is clearly visible as the yellow stratum at its base

« Son Düzenleme: Kasım 12, 2006, 04:57:30 ös Gönderen: MASON »
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Mart 24, 2013, 04:43:00 ös
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' Supposedly, the Egyptian Pyramids are  missed from Turkey. ' There was a rumor that, at one time. Frankly, when I heart it I did not know laugh or cry. For years discourses the various about how they were made .. Architectural beauty was a toy, because of ignorant people.
Adequatio intellectus et rei


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