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Gönderen Konu: MAWLANA'S THOUGHTS  (Okunma sayısı 1985 defa)

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MAWLANA'S  THOUGHTS

Written By Prof.Dr.Emine Yeniterzi - Konya Selcuk University

 
   Mawlana was a scholar, mystic and craftsman with a deep knowledge of the essence of Islam. He was also cognisant of Qur'anic Commentary (Tafsir). Tradition (Hadith), and Theology (Kalam). and aware of the current schools of thoughts of Islam. In short, he was a man whose guidance transcended over the ages. One of the other peculiarities that made him to become of the exceptional personalities of the history was his capacity for thought.  Mawlana had acquired his thoughts through religion, science, philosophy and mysticism, and then melted them in the melting pot of belief and love,  and finally put forward a sound system of thought that conformed with the  belief of the People of the Book and Tradition (Ahl al-Sunnah), and was never eroded by time and  place.  In  his precious works of wisdom and knowledge in  thousands of verses, he explained the theological and  philosophical matters  which were  most discussed among people, by  giving easy examples. By so doing, he offered certain solutions to the cases.

   In this  chapter, we will shortly  mention his thoughts on various subjects. However, we must indicate the fact  that his thoughts and their content should not be limited by the subject- matters which we included here. To be precise, each  of these subjects require a separate researching. We can only convey very little information from his vast sea of thought to these lines.

 
1.  MAN

In Mawlana's view, man is a very precious being. For man was created to be God's vicegerent in this earth, and was donated with the sciences that angels do not have knowledge of. Hence, angelswere ordered  to bow down to the Prophet Adam (The Qur'an, 2/30). God proclaimed man’s being distinct, honorable and superior over  other creatures with the following Qur'anic verse: "We have honored the sons of Adam." (The Qur'an, 17/70). "Man was  created in the  purest and best nature, 'ahsan-i taqwim " (The Qur'an. 95/4), and was donated,  spiritually and materially, with many virtues.

Mawlana", in his works, repeatedly emphasized man's superiority:

"The aim of the  (creation of) universe is man."

                (Majalis-i Sab'a/Seven Sessions, 45)98

"A single breath of man is worth that of a soul;

A hair that  falls  down from him (or her) is worth that of a mine."

                      (Rubais/Quatrains, 76) 

  "I am weak, thin and helpless, but I heard a voice, a voice that has the trace of graces: 'We have honored the sons of Adam'. I am now neither weak nor thin  nor helpless. I can get lots of help. Once I have filled up my quiver with Your arrows, I even pull up and bend the back of the mythic mountain." (Majalis-i Sab'a, 12) 

 "Sometimes, even the angels envy our purity. 

And sometimes, even Satan sees our fearlessness and runs away.   

This soil is our soil which is charged with God's trust.   

May God preserve our power and nimbleness from evil."

                           (Rubais, 19)

However,  if a man  conceives  these values in himself and discovers the  substance in his own creation, then he carries the characteristic of being man in himself.

   "There is another soul in your soul, seek out for it.

   There is a treasury in the Mount Body, seek out for that treasury.

   O mystic who goes on!  If you are really capable then seek.

   Not outside, but seek what you are seeking for in yourself."

                           (Rubais, 22)

  Man, who is the vicegerent of God on Earth, is a being in which divine manifestations were embodied.  When he  was worthless mud in the beginning, God blowed His  own spirit into him, then he became an assumed Compassionate by the medium of this Divine blow:

"You are neither water  nor soil, but something else.,.

You are away from the world of clay, you are on a journey.

Your mould (body) is  an irrigation trench, and your soul is eternal water (hat streams into it.

But, you will not be aware of either as long as you stay in yourself."

(Rubais, 205)

 "If you look outside, you see the form of man.

You watch a group of people from the countries of Rum and Khurasan.

Turn to your Lord' said God; its meaning is such:

Look at your self, see someone other than man."

(Rubais,218)

Man is not made of body only. The thing that gives him life is the spirit which is the friend of God's light. Those who know this fact and direct their spirit towards the Friend are real men, and they are superior to angels.

In exposition of the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad: "He whose lust prevails over his reason is lower than the beasts", Mawlana classifies the creatures of the world in three kinds. One class (He made) are entirely reason, knowledge and munificence; that is the angel: they know nothing but prostration in worship. The second class is devoid of knowledge, like the animal which lives in fatness from (eating) fodder. It sees nothing but its stable and fodder. It has no responsibility in worship. The third class is Adam's descendant and Man: half of him is of the angel and half of him is animal. The animal-half, inclines to that which is low; the angel-half inclines to that which is rational. One party have become submerged absolutely and, like prophets, have attained unto the nature of the angel. In other words, prophets become higher in degree than angels because of their knowledge and intellect (Fihi Mafih, 122-123; Mathnawi, IV/1518-40).

"There is an attribute of animal. Satan and Mercy in you.

Which of it you belong to you join in the Day of Judgement."

(Majalis-i Sab'a, 73)

"You are a king in the virtue of (the Qur'anic text). We have ennobled the sons of Adam: you set foot both on the dry land and on die sea.

For in spirit you are (what is signified by the text), We have conveyed them on the sea: push forward (then) from (the state implied in the words). We have conveyed them on the land.

"The angels have no access to the land; the animal kind, again, are ignorant of the sea.

You in (your) body are an animal, and in (your) spirit you are of the angels, so that you may walk on the earth and in the sky.

So that the seer with heart divinely inspired may be, in appearance, a man like yourselves.

His body of dust (is here), fallen upon the earth: (but) his spirit is circling in yonder highest sphere (of Heaven). (Mathnawi, II/3775-78)

Man's spirit must incline towards God. For, man has come to this world for a short period, wearing the cloth of body. Hence, man's spirit was compared to a falcon among crows, a nightingale among ravens, and a gazelle in the barn of donkeys, by Mawlana himself. But, as for man, if has the love of God his value is higher than the skies regardless of his outward looks and state:

"If a falcon be white and beyond compare, (yet) it becomes despicable when it hunts a mouse.

And if there be an owl that has desire for the king, it is (noble as) the falcon's head: do not regard the hood.

Man, no bigger than a kneading-trough (scooped in a log), has surpassed (in glory) the heavens and the aether (the empyrean)

Did this heaven ever hear (the words) We have honored (XVII/72) which this sorrowful man heard (from God)?" (Mathnawi, VI/136/139)

Nevertheless, man has to give up his four characteristics in order to reach this exalted position that has been granted to him  by God. These four characteristics which are impediments for man belong to four birds: to be arrogant like a peacock; to be greedy like a goose; to be lewd like a cock; and to dream impossible things and to desire a long life like a crow (Mathnawi, V/ 31 52). In fact, these animal-like attributes do not suit man, who was created in the form that the Compassionate, namely. God (surat-i Rahman). As in the words of Mawlana, these characteristics, which are the cruciform of reason, inhibit man from being conscious of himself.

As for the another important point which Mawlana stressed upon, the reason for man's being superior in terms of creation and skills is his being responsible for worshipping God alone. This subject matter was explained in detail in the subject of "Worshipping".

As a result, we must mention that the value which Mawlana attached to man is higher than those of other mystics who lived before him. Mawlana investigated the human conscience under the light of Quranic verses, and expressed the virtue of being human in a very clear way.


2. LOVE

Mawlana, who considered every kind of perfection in love only, wrote all his works on love. For, love is the basis and essence of life. The reason for the creation of the universe is love. Furthermore, God's saying. "If you were not, if you were not, I would not have created those skies" indicates that the sole purpose of creating the universe is God's love for the Prophet Muhammad. Since the origin of the creation is love. Love of God, which is the highest point of life, is the most precious thing. Starting from this point, Mawlana pronounced this divine love in thousands of verses. It is possible to classify his thoughts on love under four headings; comparison between intellect and love; ascendancy and value of love; invalidity of love which is for mortal beings; and finally, the pitiable situation of those who have not a share in love.

In Sufi thought, intellect and science are incompetent in comprehending metaphysical realities. They may lead a man to a certain point, but not to the target. However, if a man has wings of love, he becomes lofty in a way that he can never imagine. Just as was the case in the night journey (Mi'raj ) in which the Prophet Muhammad is related to have ascended from Jerusalem to Heaven, after having been conveyed to the former from Mecca upon the best named at-buraq)... In that holy night, while the Prophet and Gabriel were ascending through the levels of the sky, Gabriel stopped suddenly when they arrived in Sidrat al-Munteha (the lote-tree in the Seventh Heaven, beyond which neither angel nor prophet passes, and which shades the water and Paradise) and said, " I will burn up if I go a step further". But the Prophet Muhammad passed the Sidrah and came closer to God; now he was at a point of "aw adna" (The Qur'an, 53/9), which is the last point of being closer to God. Sidrat al-Munteha is the last point where angels and prophets could go. In another words, it is the place where everything ends except the Divine Order (Amr-i Ilahi). So, Sufis consider Gabriel as the symbol of human conception, science and intellect, and the Prophet Muhammad as the pattern of heart and love that transcends the restricted limits of science and intellect.

He points this as follows;

"When a man's understanding has been his teacher, after this the understanding becomes his pupil.

The understanding says, like Gabriel, 'O Ahmad (Muhammad), if I take one (more) step, it will burn me;

Leave me, henceforth advance (alone): this is my limit, O Sultan of the soul!" (Mathnawi, 1/II12-14)

Hence, Mawlana considered love as a state of which every Sufi must have experience. He is of the opinion that the heart that is drowned in God, the Beloved One, with love is precious and preferable. (Mathnawi, 1/1853). Man, like Gabriel, cannot reach God with his intellect, and stops on the half way. If we consider the distance between God and man as a sea, then intellect is a swimmer in that sea, and love is a ship. Swimming is a pleasant thing, but not enough for a voyage. The swimmer might get tired and be drowned at the end, but he who boards the ship reaches his goal (Mathnawi. IV/1423-27).

On the other hand, it is a very tiring work to reach God with the renunciation of the world (zuhd) and devoutness (taqwa) only. Perhaps, one man in many may achieve this. Thus, this is stated in the following prophetic saying: "Abu Bakr (the second caliph after the Prophet Muhammad) was not considered as superior over the other people because of his fasting and voluntary contribution of his almsgiving only. On the contrary, he was honored by his strong belief (iman) in his heart." As was stated in this Prophetic saying, Abu Bakr is superior to others not only for his prayers and fastings, but his being lost in love of God. Daily prayers, fastings and almsgivings are being put in the scale in the Day of Judgement. But when the Divine love is being put in the scale, it does not fit into it. Hence the essential thing is love. (Fihi Mafih, 325-326).

As a matter of fact, the nature of this love cannot be explained by words, and squeezed between lines. Those who taste it can only appreciate its value:

Someone asked, "What is love?". I answered, "you will know when you become (lost in) me!" (Majalis-i Sab'a, 82).

Mawlana's saying "You will know when you become (lost in) me!" states that the final stage of reaching God, that is, to know, find, become (God)' is only realized by love. Science and intellect may lead to the stage of knowing only. Again Mathnawi says:

"Whatever I say in exposition and explanation of Love, when I come to Love (itself) I am ashamed of that (explanation).

Whilst the pen was making haste in writing, it split upon itself as soon as it came to Love.

In expounding it (Love), the intellect lay down (helplessly) like an ass in the mud; it was Love (alone) that uttered the explanation of love and lover hood.

The proof of the sun is the sun (himself); if you require the proof, do not avert your face from him."

(Mathnawi, 1/II2-II6)

In the above lines, it is understood that love cannot be described by words, and it is stressed once again that intellect is helpless.

Mawlana stated in Mathnawi that he whose garment was rent by a mighty love was purged of covetousness and all defect; and love was the physician of all our ills and the remedy of our pride and vainglory; an also the earthly body soared the skies through love. By so saying, he clearly indicates that man was cleared off pride, worldly desire, envy, grudge, and many other evil habits through Divine Love only. If those who knew the spiritual world were in the majority in a society, all worldly worries and defects would be removed. On the other hand, Mawlana advised that just as a man learned a trade to earn a livelihood for the body, we should learn trade to earn the Hereafter, that is, God's forgiveness, again, the earnings of religion were love. (Mathnawi, II/2592-2603).

As Yunus Emre said, "The sect of love is a religion to me," Mawlana", too, said:

"Our Prophet's way is Love,

We are the sons of Love; our mother is Love."

So Mawlana indicates that the essence of the four orthodox sects (namely. The Hanafism, Shafism, Hanbalism, Malikism) is love. What we understood from this is that those who follow the rituals of the religion only are the ones who are not aware of its essence, and busy with the husk. In fact, man must include love in his prayers, and worship God with great sincerity and intimacy.

Mawlana calls the love of God as a real love only:

"Those loves which are for the sake of a colour (outward beauty) are not love: in the end they are a disgrace." (Mathnawi, 1/214)

"Because the love of the dead is not enduring, because the dead one never comes (back) to us.

(But) love of the living is every moment fresher than a bud in the spirit and in the sight of eternal Divine Love..

Choose the love of the Living One who is everlasting, who gives you to drink of the wine that increases life.

Choose the love of Him from whose love all the prophets gained power and glory.

Do not say. "We have no admission to that King." Dealings with the generous are not difficult." (Mathnawi, 1/226-230)

"The lovers of the whole are not those who love the part: he that longed for the part failed to attain unto the whole" (Mathnawi. 1/2903). With the latter verse, Mawlana indicates that the lovers of God do not appreciate anything but God only, and that those who direct their love to the worldly things are deprived of God's love. However, sometimes there might be exceptions of this. If a man is decisive, sincere and faithful in his love for the mortal, then this metaphorical love might lead him to the true love, that is, the Divine love:

"If the lover of that (false) conception be sincere, that metaphor (unreal judgement) will lead him to the reality." (Mathnawi, 1/2861)

There is similar example of this in the Islamic literatures. Majnun set out for his love of Laila. but he finally reached the love of God.

But if a man has no share of love, whether it is metaphorical or true. Mawlana reprimands him severely:

"Since you do not fall in love, go and weave...

You have a lot to do. and your body and face have hundreds of different colours.

Since there is no wine of love in your skull.

Go, and lick the dishes of rich people in the kitchen... "

(Rubais. 26)

"When love has no care for him. he is left as a bird without wings. Alas for him then!" (Mathnawi, 1/31)

Mawlana who found out that the essence of creation and man's exaltation of his worldly body was in love alone, never considered a loveless life as a real life:

"Luck becomes your sweetheart, if it becomes helpful.

Love helps you in your daily routines.

Consider not the loveless life as life.

For, it will be out of consideration."

(Majalis-i Sab'a. 43)

 
3-  HEART

Heart is one of the common subjects both in folk literature and old Turkish lyric literary school. Heart, like the Ka'ba  is a holy place where God looks, and divine manifestations become clear. However, just as (he dusty mirror does not reflect images, so the heart, too, does not reflect the image of God when it becomes dirty with worldly desires. Therefore, the heart must be pure, and be full of with love and sincerity; and ambition, grudge, hypocrisy, and the like must never be allowed to creep into it. The Divine Eye is deserving of such hearts of high quality. The Prophet Muhammad said: "God does not regard your outward form or wealth, but only your heart and deeds." In accordance with this prophetic tradition. man must go to the presence of his Creator with a pure and gleaming heart.

A related story is narrated in the Fihi Mafih: A friend of Joseph returned from a journey. Joseph asked: "What have you brought for me?" His friend replied: "What else may you need? Since you are the most handsome person I have ever seen, I have brought you a mirror in order you may look at your face." So God has everything, and needs nothing. Man must take a mirror, that is a pure heart, to his Creator in order that God may see Himself in that heart. (Fihi Mafih. 285)

The same subject is dealt with by Mawlana in the Mathnawi too:

"He (The Prophet) said, 'He (God) does not regard your (outward) form: therefore in your devising, seek the owner of the heart.

Since you have deemed your heart to be the heart, you have abandoned the search after those who possess the heart.

The heart into which if seven hundred (heavens) like these Seven Heavens should enter, they would be lost and hidden (from view).

Do not call such fragments of heart as these 'the heart1.

O rich man, (if) you bring a hundred sacks of gold, God will say, 'Bring the heart, O you that are prostrated (in devotion)." (Mathnawi, V/874-886)

"(But) when the mukhtis (sincere worshipper) has become mukhlis, he is delivered: He has reached the place of safety and has won the victory." (Mathnawi, II/1329)

Mawlana considered the heart that does not take shelter in God as unbeliever. That heart is like a war-tom ruined city (Rubais, 96). However, a heart that is full of the love of God, reflects the light of God's sun, and is prosperous (Mathnawi, 1/53)

Thus the prosperous hearts are the house of God: "The purpose of the Ka'ba is the hearts of saints and prophets, and this is the place of the Word of God. The Ka'ba is a part of this. If there is no heart, then what use can the Ka'ba be?" (Fihi Mafih, 254).

Disrespect can not be paid to such a holy structure. People should beware of breaking hearts and hurting each other. Heartbreaking unfortunates are without intellect: "Idiots, whilst showing respect in the mosque (masjid), try to break the hearts of those who prostrate." If that is real, o idiots; that is a metaphor and this is reality. The true mosque is the home of the wise. The place where saints and the pure-hearted prostrate." (Mathnawi, II/31, 39-41)

 
4.  INTELLECT

As it was already mentioned in the subject of love. Mawlana" favored love in comparison to intellect. In addition to this, it is seen that on one hand while he praises intellect, on the other hand, he criticizes it. Like all Sufis, Mawlana does not oppose the natural intellect, which is related with the sentimental and material world, but to the theoretical and metaphysical intellect that it claims to give judgements about the metaphysical world, and to comprehend the Divine truth." Most of his objections in this matter were directed towards some intellectuals and philosophers who accepted intellect as the fundamental and considered it as the sole source of information for knowledge.100

Intellect, generally speaking, is divided into two categories: the part intellect and the whole intellect. The former is the thought of as the human being, that is to say  the personal intellect. The latter, which is also called "Hakikat-i Muhammediye" (he truth of the Prophet Muhammad), is used for Gods being seen active everywhere. The whole intellect is the thing which does, finds and creates everything. The part intellect needs to learn everything, and the whole intellect is its teacher. The prophets are the whole intellects. The prophets and the friends of God (wait, pi. awleya') bind the part intellect to the whole intellect (Fihi Mafih. 220). Everyting on earth is the shadow of the whole intellect. Mawlana appreciated the part intellect, "since it was a part of the whole intellect, and thus has taken its whole strength from it."101 On the other hand, intellect is of the kind of an angel, and is ethereal like a spirit.

"For as much as the Angel is one in origin with intelligence, (and) they have (only) become two (different) forms for the sake of (Divine) Wisdom.

The Angel assumed wings and pinions like a bird, while this intelligence left wings (behind) and assumed (immaterial) splendor.

Necessarily both became co-adjusters: both the beauteous ones became a support to one another.

The Angel, as well as the intelligence is a finder of God: each of the twain is a helper and worshipper of Adam.

The flesh (nafs) and the Devil have (also) been (essentially) one from the first, and have been an enemy and envier of Adam." (Mathnawi. [II/3215-19)

As was mentioned here, one of the reasons of intellect's being precious is its being the opposite of the soul/flesh (nafs):

"Intellect, by its proper nature, is a seer of the end (consequence); It is the fleshly soul that does not see the end." (Mathnawi, II/1564)

"Because (in Jesus) intellect was ruling, and the ass (was) weak -the ass was made lean by a strong rider." (Mathnawi, II/1877)

In addition;

"Excellently well said the complaisant Prophet, *A mote of intelligence is better for you than fasting and performing the ritual prayer.'

Because your intelligence is the substance, (whereas) these two (things) are accidents: these two are made obligatory in (the case of persons who possess) the full complement of it." (Mathnawi, V/456-457)

On the other hand, Mawlana indicates that intellect alone is insufficient: "intellect cannot be a guide in the way to reach God." (Mathnawi, 1/557). What he meant here by the word 'intellect' is the part intellect:

"The part (discursive) intellect is like lightening thunder. Its light cannot be a guide in the way.

Lightening cannot be a guide, but it perhaps orders the clouds to cry.

Know that the lightening of intellect, too, is for crying; so that wealth might cry for being.

A child teams something with his intellect at school, otherwise he cannot learn by himself.

A sick man goes to the doctor with the help of his intellect but it (the intellect) is of no use in his treatment." (Mathnawi, II1/342-46)

"The function of this simple intellect lasts until the grave, whereas the function of the intellect of the friend of God lasts until the world to come." (Mathnawi, HI/3334)

"Intelligence is (like) swimming in the sea: he (the swimmer) is not saved: he is drowned at the end.

Leave off swimming, let pride and enmity go: this is not a Jayhun (Oxus) or a (lesser) river, it is an ocean;

And moreover, (it is) the deep ocean without refuge: it sweeps away the seven seas like straw.

Love is a ship for the elite: seldom is calamity (the result); for the most part it is deliverance.

Sell intelligence and buy bewilderment: intelligence is opinion, while bewilderment is (immediate) vision.

Sacrifice your understanding in the presence of Mustafa (Muhammad) say, "God is sufficient for me (hasbiyallah)," (Mathnawi, IV/1424-29)

By so saying, Mawlana states that love is necessary in the way to reach God, and therefore, the part intellect is insufficient in making a man closer to God. As a matter of fact, the degree of intellect varies in every person:

"There is the same difference in human intellect as (there is) amongst loved ones in (their outward) forms." (Mathnawi, II1/1542)

"Some intellects are like the Sun. Some are similar to the planet Venus, and some are similar to the shooting stars.

Some intellects are like a lightless candle, whereas some others glitter like stars." (Mathnawi, V/762-63)

When many intellects are united, they become superior to one intellect:

"These illuminated intellects are like an oil-lamp. Surely, twenty of them give more light than the one." (Mathnawi, V1/2638)

Hence, man must unite his intellect with an illuminated intellect. For, only those who are clever by nature may develop this faculty by education:

"(And who maintains that) experience and teaching makes them more or less, so that it makes one person more knowing than the other.

This is false, because it is the counsel of a boy who has not experience in any course of action.

From that small child sprang up a thought (which) the old man with hundred experiences did not smell out (detect and apprehend) at all.

Truly, the superiority that is from (any one's) nature is even better than the superiority that is the result of endeavor and reflection." (Mathnawi, II1/1546-49)

Since intellect is a relative concept which is different in every human being, and many intellects gain superiority when they come together, then in such case:

"Intelligence is wings and feathers to a man: when he lacks intelligence, (he must rely on) the intelligence of a guide." (Mathnawi, VI/4109)

"Mind gains strength from another mind: the sugar-cane is made perfect by the sugar cane." (Mathnawi, II/2300)

To conclude, in Mawlana's opinion, intelligence is limited. However some intellects are superior, and these belong to prophets and God's friends. They only can lead man's "part intellect" to the universal intellect, that is. The truth of Muhammad, the secret of creation. The Prophets and the friends of God constitute the way between the part intellect and the universal intellect, and their way is love. Hence, man must never rely on the guidance of his limited intellect; he must leave aside the small steps of his intellect, but take the wings of love in order to proceed.

 
5.   PHILOSOPHY

The theologians of Islam (al-Mutakallimun), who lived in Mawlana's age, accepted that intellect was very precious and unlimited, and thus only relied on philosophical arguments and logical syllogisms in proving the authenticity of religious subjects. These scholars were of the opinion that man could reach the ultimate truth through his intellect- On the other hand, the materialist thinkers rejected inner senses and metaphysical truths, and accepted only the things perceived through the five senses. This situation leads inevitably to a decrease in men's belief, and the loss of their confidence in the necessity of divine religions and esoteric truths. Islamic theology had become a very dull and limited science that depended only upon the outer senses and logical syllogisms, leading men to rejection of things which they never saw.102

As this was the situation. Mawlana brought a fresh approach Islamic theology (Kalam). He criticized all philosophical thoughts. In his opinion, intellect alone was insufficient in grasping the metaphysical truths. The best way to reach the divine truths was love. Those who believe things which they only experienced through their outer senses were wrong:

'The unbeliever's argument is just this, that he says, 'I see no place of abode except this external (world).'

He never reflects that, wherever there is anything external, that (object) gives information of hidden wise purposes.

The usefulness of every external object is, indeed, internal. It is latent, like the beneficial quality in medicines." (Mathnawi, (V/2878-80)

Man can never get true knowledge with his part intellect and personal thoughts. Everybody has different perspectives. In order to explain this, Mawlana narrates this story: Some Hindus brought an elephant for exhibition from India, and put it in a dark house. In order to see it, many people went to that dark place. As seeing it with the eye was impossible, each one felt it in the dark with the palm of his hand. They whose hands fell on its trunk defined it as a water-pipe. To another, who touched its ear, it appeared to be like a fan; and again, to some other people, who handled its leg, thought the elephant's shape to be like a pillar. Similarly, whenever any one gave the description of the elephant, he understood it only in respect of the part that he had touched. To summarize, everyone reached a judgement according to the part of the elephant they had touched. But, if there had been a candle in each one's hand, they could have seen the elephant as a whole, and thus, would not have been mistaken, and the difference would have gone out of their words. So everybody would have had the correct knowledge of it (Mathnawi, III/ 1264-73). Having cited this example, Mawlana criticized the philosophers' crediting only their limited thoughts. Since every human being had his or her personal view, and looked at reality from different angles, they were not free of false judgements and results by reason of being unable to sec the truth as a whole.

Again, Mawlana criticized the ways of finding intellectual and sensible arguments and syllogisms, while stating the weak points of philosophy. He was of the opinion that the first one to have made a mistake was Satan himself. In fact, he was a great angel before. However, when the angels were ordered to prostrate themselves before the Prophet Adam, Satan (Iblis) refused and gloried in his arrogance and despised Adam, saying, "My origin is fire, and Adam was created from soil. I have a luminous cloth, and he has a dark one", and thus finally became condemned by God. (Mathnawi, 1/3502-09)

The insufficiency of reasoning with such barren intellect leads also a man to mistakes. Mawlana", in his Mathnawi, tells us a few stories concerning this subject-matter. One of these stories is related to a deaf man's visiting his sick neighbor:

"One possessed of much wealth said to deaf man, "A neighbors of yours has fallen ill."

The deaf man said to himself, "Being hard of hearing what shall I understand of (he words spoken by that youth?

When I see his lips moving, I will form a conjecture as to that (movement) from myself.

When I say, 'How are you, O my suffering (friend)?' he will reply "Thanks to God, I am fine."

I will say. 'Thanks (to God)! What have you had to drink?' He will reply, 'Some sherbet' and 'lentil soup.'

(Then) I will say, 'May you enjoy health! Who is the doctor attending you?" He will answer, 'So-and-so.'

'He is one who brings great luck with him.' I will remark, 'Since he has come, things will go well for you.

His feet are blessed: wherever he goes, the desired is attained.'

The good man made ready these conjectural answers, and went to see the invalid.

'How are you?' he asked. 'I am at the point of death,' said he. 'Thanks (to God)!' cried the deaf man. At this, the patient became resentful and indignant.

Saying (to himself). 'What (cause for) thanksgiving is this? He has been my enemy.' - The deaf made a conjecture, and (as now appears) it turned out to be wrong.

After that, he asked him what he had drunk: 'Poison.' said he. 'May it do you good and give you health!' said the deaf man. His (the invalid's) wrath increased.

Then he inquired, 'Which of the doctors is it that is coming to attend you?'

He replied. 'Azrael (Ihe Angel of Dealh) is coming. Be you göne!' 'His foot (arrival)' said ıhe deaf man, "is very blessed: be glad!"

The deaf man went forth. He said gaily, 'Thanks (to God) for that! Now I will take leave.*

The invalid said. *This is my mortal foe: I did not know he was (such) a mine of iniquily.'

Inasmuch as visiting the sick is for the purpose of (giving them) lranquillity, this was not a visit to the sick: it was the satisfaction of an encmy's wixh.

By the analogical re&soning which the deaf man adopted, a ten ycar's friendship w as made vain." (Mathnawî, 1/3466-99)

Another story about the insufficiency of reasoning is related to a parrot that spilt rose-oil from a bottlc. He was struck by his owner, which causcd him to lose his feathers, the parrot said when he saw a bald man: "O baldpaie? Did you, then spill oil from the bottle?" By so saying, the parrot compares his own baldness to that of man's (Mathnawî, 1/256-73). Again, the comical situation of a fly alighted on a blade of straw in a pool of ass's urine is described as follows: "Look! Here is this sea and this ship, and I am the pilot and skilled (in navigation) and judicious." (Mathnawî, 1/II29-40)

With all these and similar examples, Mawlânâ stated that man's logical syllogisms are nothing but pure imagination only, since he reasoned ihrough his limited intellect, and thus philosophy could not reach the truth either, since it gave its decisions in the same way. In fact, knowledge, in Mawlânâ's view, is not the ultimate goal but an instrument with which man can be useful both for himself and others in this world. Therefore, knowledge, that depends on mere personal observations and deductions. and philosophy, which relies on such knowledge, are unaware of the secrets of creation, since both are devoid of the divine love.

 
6.  KNOWLEDGE  ('ILM)

Mawlânâ, who himself was a great scholar, believed in the value of religion. He was of the view that knowledge was like the seal of the Prophet Suleiman; so man, with the help of knowledge  governs the whole world. That is to say, the world is an appearance, and knowledge its essence, humanity gains its honour through knowledge (Mathnawî, 1/1071-72). The love of God can be obtained by knowledge only. People, who do not have their share of knowledge and imprudent ones are far from such love (Mathnawî. II/1545-49). Knowledge is a guide for men. So men, with their knowledge, became superior to other creatures (Mathnawî, II/336İ).

However, the knowledge, which has these qualifıcations, is inner knowledge ('Um al-bâtin), not external knowledge (Hm al-iâhh) in Mawlânâ's opinion, knowledge/sciences that depend on logical syllogisms and arguments are barren. Precious knowledge is the knowledge of the Divine Providence (ilm-u ladunn) which helps men to perceive his secrecy of own creation, and which is gained by the Divine love, and which is written on the pages of the heart. By saying, "I was raw (immature), I was cooked, I was burnt up..." Mawlânâ described his being master in the external sciences as the state of being raw. He shares the same view with Yunus Emre (The Turkish mystic, d. 1320 A.D.) and other mystics in the following verses:

"Knowledge should mean a full grasp of knowledge.

Knowledge means to know Yourself, heart and soul.

If you have failed to understand yourself,

Then all of your reading has missed its call.

 
What is the purpose of reading those books?

So that man can know the All-Powerful.

If you have read, but failed to understand,

Then your efforts are just a barren soul."


For him, knowledge is not a goal but a means that takes man to his Creator. Hence such knowledge, that does not fulfill this duty, does not increase man's true knowledge but causes him to take a false step. What raises a man to a higher position are the inner sciences:

'The wisdom of this world brings increase of supposition and doubt; the wisdom of Religion soars above the sky." (Mathnawî, II/3233)

The main thing -as indicated in the saying, "He who knows his own soul, knows his God"- is to know where we are coming from, where we are going to:

"He knows a hundred thousand superfluous matters connected vvith the (various) sciences, (but) that unjust man does not know his own soul.

He knows the special properties of every substance, (but) in elucidating his own substance (essence) he is (as ignorant) as an ass.

Saying, 'I know (what is) permissibie and unpermissible.' You know not whether you yourself are permissibie or (unpermissible as) an old woman.

You know this licit (thing) and that illicit (thing), but what are licit or illicit? Consider well!

You know what is the value of every article or merchandise; (if) you know not the value of yourself, this is folly.

You have become acquainted with the fortunate and inauspicious stars; you do not look to see whether you are fortunate or unwashed spiritually foul and ill-favoured.

This, this is the soul of all the sciences:  that you should know who you shall be on the Day of Judgement.

You are acquainted with the fundamentals (usûl) of the Religion of Islam, but look upon your own fundamental (asi) and see whether it is good.

Your own fundamentals are better for you than the two fundamentals (of the Religion of islam), so that you may know your own fundamental (essential nature), O great man." (Mathnawî, II1/2660-68)

Mawlânâ describes the knowledge that does not lead a man to his God, and that does not teach him to obey his Creator, as burden and tiredness (Ariflerin Menkıbeleri [The Stories of Mystics], II/83). When knowledge strikes on the heart (is acquired through mystical experience), it becomes a helper, when knowledge strikes on the body (is acquired through the senses), it becomes a burden. God has said ,(like an ass ) laden with his books' (The Qur'an,62/5). burdensome İs the knowledge that is not from Himself (Mathnawî, 1/3552-54).

The Prophet Muhammad said: "O God, I seek protection by You from useless knowledge, arrogant heart, insatiable soul and unaccepted prayer." In accordance with this prophetic saying, Mawlânâ believes in knowledge that is useful:

"The (right) thought is that whîch opens a way: the (right) way is that on which ( a spiritual) king advances." (Mathnawî, II/3237)

A related story on this subject-matter is narrated in the Mathnawî: A certain Arab of the desert loaded a camel with two big sacks of grain, and he sat on the top of both sacks. He met with a philosopher on the way. The philosopher questioned him -He asked him about his native land and led him to talk and said many fine things in the course of his enquiry. Afterwards he said to him:

"What are those two sacks filled with?" He replied: "in one sack I have wheat: in (he other is some sand." "Why," the philosopher asked, "Did you load this sand?" "in order that the other sack might not remain alone," he replied. The philosopher said: "For wisdom's sake.  Pour half the wheat of that pannier into the other, so that the sacks may be lightened, and the camel too." The Arab admired his subtle thought and excellent judgement, and asked the philosopher: "O fair-spoken sage, explain a little about your own circumstances as well. With such intelligence and talent as you have, are you a vizier or a king? How many camels and oxes have you? What is your job?" The philosopher answered his all questions: "I am neither a vizier nor a king. I have neither camels nor oxen. I have neither a shop nor a dwelling place. I haven't got a penny, either. By God in my whole property there is even  no food for the night. I run about with bare feet and naked body." The Arab got angry as soon as he heard the philosopher's answers: "Be gone far from my side, so that your ill-luck may not rain upon me. Take far away from me that unlucky wisdom of yours. One sack of wheat and the other of sand is better for me than these vain contrivings. My foolishness is very blessed foolishness." (Mathnawi. II/3206-31)

There is a similar story is between a grammarian and a boatman:

"A certain grammarian embarked in a boat. That self-conceited person turned to the boatman.

And said, 'Have you ever studied grammar?', 'No', he replied. The other said half your life is gone to naught.'

The boatman became heart-broken with grief. But at the time he refrained from answering.

The wind cast the boat into a whirlpool: the boatman spoke loud (shouted) to the grammarian.

"Tell me, do you know how to swim?' 'No', said he, 'O fair-spoken good-looking-man!'

'O grammarian.' He said, ‘your whole life is naught, because the boat is sinking in these whirlpools.'

Know that here mahw (self-effacement) is needed, not nahw (grammar): If you are mahw dead to plunge yourself  into the sea without peril.

The water of the sea places the dead one on its head (causes him to float on the surface); but if he be living, how shall he escape from the sea?

In as much as you have died to the attributes of the flesh, the sea of (Divine) consciousness will place you on the crown of its head (will raise you to honor)." (Mathnawi, II7/2660-68)

There is no doubt that there are a lot of deterrent lessons in this well-known story which everybody should take, such as:  badness of one's boasting about knowledge, and thus disapproval of being boastful; and again disapproval of breaking someone's heart, and looking for someone's mistakes and faults; and usefulness of practical knowledge in comparison with a theoretical one; and necessity of taking lessons from the mortal world no matter how great a scholar we are; and finally the insufficiency of knowledge that is related only with this mortal world, and so on. As to the kernel of the above story, apart from God, necessarily, everything on earth is mortal.

Another of Mawlânâ's advice about knowledge is that knowledge makes its owner gain a high esteem when it is united with good deeds. It is not sufficient to be knowledgeable (Fîhi Mâfih, 93). Those who are knowledgeable but devoid of good deeds are not scholars but only knowledge keepers (Mathnawî, II1/3060). What is understood from this thought is that Mawlânâ  favors that theoretical knowledge should be applied to life. Knowledge should never be kept in words and theory, but to be applied to life, to be lived with.


7.M0RALS

Mawlânâ, who is a heart educator, teaches also to be an example of good man, while telling us about love and Divine love. He thinks that if a society consists of people of good character and of generous heart, it will be happy and peaceful. He is also of the opinion that to become a pure person, and to gain sound character and good conduct is possible only with education. Having quoted the two Prophetic traditions, namely, "Religion is counselling" and "The religion of Islam is a religion of good conduct", Mawlânâ put his works, which are a gathering of good advice, at the service of humanity. It is possible to deduce a moral from every story which he narrated about different subjects in his Mathnawi. He frequently mentions that with good conduct man gains a high esteem, and with bad conduct man loses.  However, it is conditional that moral beauty (or adab, in his  terminology) should be settled down in the heart (Mathnawi II/3249-50).

Therefore, bad conducts such as ambition, envy, lying, hypocrisy and backbiting should be abandoned forever.

For, ambition is a barrier for a man to gain pure eyes, sound intellect, and ears; it also makes the heart blind (Mathnawî, II/575).

Envy is the worst habit, and is the kernel of all defects and faults (Mathnawî, II/812-13).

Backbiting is likened to eating man's flesh, it is impossible to keep secret the smell of backbiter's mouth from God (Mathnawî.HI/107-l0).

Pride caused Satan to be condemned and to be devoid of Divine forgiveness forever, while, in fact, he was an angel before.

Indulging in wealth is likened to a straw in a man's throat. This straw, which is stuck in the throats of those who have indulged in worldly desires and wealth, is an obstacle to drink the elixir (eau de vie) which is the source of eternal bliss (Mathnawî, II/132-33).

If bribery becomes widespread in a society, then the system of justice becomes paralyzed, and the tyrant and tyrannised cannot be distinguished. (Mathnawî, 1/1347).

Squandering is bad; and the worst type of squandering is wasting time badly (Majâlis al-Sab'a , 23).

Man, first of all, tries to correct his own faults, and never tries to find out others' faults. Those who find others' faults may most probably find themselves in that bad or undesirable situation (Mathnawî, II/3064).

The wicked and liars will break their oath, whereas the righteous have no need of taking an oath (Mathnawî, II/2902-03) for lying arouses suspicion in hearts, whereas truth causes heart's ease (Mathnawî, II/2762).

The tyrant will bear the consequence of his tyranny.  He who is roasting the poor's heart in tyranny is, in fact, roasting his own flesh. (Majâlis al-Sab'a. 23).

Mawlanâ praised good habits very strongly, such as humbleness, generosity, patience, truthfulness, holding a secret, and so forth.

Humbleness is a virtue that extols man (Mathnawî, II1/457-66).  A tree full of fruits bends down, whereas a barren tree's branches stretches out towards the sky.  When the fruits on the branches increase, those branches are propped up by posts to prevent them from touching on the ground.  The Prophet Muhammad who collected in his personality the fruits of both worlds, namely this world and the world-to-come, is a unique example as regards the subject of humbleness (Fîhi Mâfıh, 164).

The generous, and especially those who help the needy, hold the tree of Paradise  and the wealth they spend on the needy returns to themselves (on the Day of Judgement). (Mathnawî, [II/869-70. 1/2335.II/1286).

Keeping one's promise is a considerable measure of his or her faithfulness. Only the faithful deserve to be praised (Rubâîs, 69).

He who prevails over his anger at once when he became angry is protected against the anger of God (Mathnawî. IV/II4)

Patience is one key to relief, and removes every kind of difficulty (Mathnawî, II1/1848).

Mawlânâ expressed the importance of subjects such as actîng prudently, and taking lessons from others' bad situations and not being hasty, and eating less, and sleeping less, and talking less , in order not to be remorseful. These virtues must be lived or practiced, they must not remain in theories or words, because the words of wisdom on the tongue of the unwise are as borrowed robes (Mathnawî, M/676).

"Let us implore God to help us to gain self-control: one who lacks self-control is deprived of the grace of the Lord.

The undisciplined man does not maltreat himself alone, but he sets the whole worid on fire" (Mathnawî, 1/79-80).

As understood with these words, Mawlânâ clearly warned us about this subject-m atter. Therefore, we must be very careful in choosing our friends in order to protect ourselves from the wicked actions of the ill-mannered or malign people:

"(I swear) by the truth of the Holy Person of Allah, the Lord, that a malign snake is better than a malign friend.

The malign snake takes soul (life) from the man it has bitten; the malign friend leads him into the everlasting Fire.

Your heart secretly steals its disposition from the disposition of your companion, without speech and talk on his part.

When he casts his shadow over you, that unprincipled one steals away your principles from you." (Mathnawî, V/2643-46)

In conclusion, while Mawlânâ, in order to have good manners, advised us to have good and true friends, he always invited the whole of humanity to goodness:

 
"Go, help others; time will appreciate your help.

İt never forgets your help...

Everybody left his or her wealth behind, so yours will be left, too.

Then, one's leaving goodness behind is better than his leaving wealth."

(Rubâîs, 88)             


8.WORSHIP

Mawlânâ deeply attached himself to the articles of belief and the principles of islam. Hence, the subject of worship is dealt with clearly and in detail in his works.  His views concerning the subject of worship depends shortly on three fundamentals: Necessity of worship, performing worship sincerely, and compensation of worship.

First of all, as indicated in the following Qur'anic verse, "I have not created the invisîble beings and men to any end other than that they may [know and] worship Me" (The Qur'an, 51/56), Mawlânâ 100 stated that the main reason in man's creation was his worshipping God alone, although he had a very gifted nature to do everything. In short, man was created for worshipping God (Mathnawî. II1/3006-10; Fîhi Mâfih, 24-25). Secondly, he emphasized that worshipping could not be realized through thoughts and words; and he was of the opinion that prayers bore witness to man's feelings of love of God and belief in Him:

"If love were (only spiritual) thought and reality, the form of your fasting and prayer would be non-existent.

The gifts of lovers to one another are, in respect of love, naught but forms;

(But the purpose is) that the gift may have bore testimony to feelings of love which are concealed in testimony.

Because outward acts of kindness bear witness to feelings of love in the heart, O dear friend." (Mathnawî, 1/2725-28)

"This (ritual prayer and fasting and pilgrimage and holy war are the attestation of the (inward) belief.

Fasting says (implicitly), 'He has abstained from what is lawful; know (therefore) that life has no connection with what is unlawful’;

And his alms-giving said (implicitly), 'He gives his own property; how then should he slcal from the religious?'

If he acts as a cutpurse (from self-İnterest) then the two witnesses are invalidated in the court of Divine justice." (Mathnawî, V/184-92)

By saying that "If seeds are sown without husks then they will not grow. So, it is necessary to sow them with husks" Mawlânâ compared the Shariah side of the religion of İslam, which consists of religious rules and ritual prayers  to a husk; so he emphasized the importance of the husk. However, the main thing which renders green the young plant is the essence in the husk. Similarly, the main thing that renders the ritual prayers precious is their essence, not their form and the movements of the body. This essence is the joy enjoyed from the prayers. "The way of our Prophet is the way of love; we were born of love." By so saying, Mawlânâ advised us to perform the orders and prohibitions of the religion, and he advised us to leave aside the formal side of the prayers, and to be an investigator, not to be a blind imitator while worshipping. A man must be sincere and in complete submission while performing his ritual prayers; so real devoutness must take its place in the heart.

The following story is quoted about the subject of blind imitation:

A sufi, after journeying, arrived at a monastery for the night. He fastened his mount in the stable and gave it a little water and some fodder. The other sufis in the monastery were destitute and poor. They secretly sold the little ass and bought some food. They ate the viands in the evening and began the sama (musical dance). In the early  hours of the morning their joy increased and they commenced to sing, 'The ass is gone, and the ass  is gone." By way of imitation that sufi (the owner of the ass) began to sing in tones of impassioned feeling this same phrase, "The ass is gone." When the pleasure and excitement and music and dancing were over, they left the monastery in the dawn. In order to take his ass, the sufi went into the stable but did not find the ass. He asked the servant whereabouts of his ass, and the servant told him everything. "Why did not come and tell me what happened last night?" asked the sufi. The servant replied: "I came several times to inform you of these doings, but you were always saying merrily, "The ass is gone." So I was always going back thinking, what a wise man he is; he knows everything, so there is no necessity for me to tell him about what happened." (Mathnawi, H/520-71)

This above story is about the uselessness of blind imitation. Again in the Mathnawî, another story is quoted about the importance of one's being sincere and faithful: The Prophet Moses saw a shepherd on his way. The shepherd was praying to God:

“O God where are You that I may become Your servant and sew your shoes and comb Your head?

That I may wash Your clothes and kill Your lice and bring milk to You. O worshipful One;

That I may kiss Your little hand and rub Your little foot, (and when) bedtime comes I may sweep Your little room.

O You to  whom all my goats be sacrifice, O You in remembrance of whom are my cries of ay and ah!"

The shepherd was speaking foolîsh words in this wisdom. Moses said, "Man, to whom is this (addressed)?"

He answered, "To that one who created us; by whom this earth and sky where brought to sight."

"Hark!" said Moses, "You have become very backsliding (depraved); indeed you have not become a Muslim, you have become an infidel.

What babble is this? What blasphemy has made the (whole) world stink; your blasphemy has turned the silk robe of religion into rags.

Shoes and socks are fitting for you, (but) how are such things right for (one who is) a son?

If you do not stop your throat from (uttering) these words, a fire will come and burn up the people.

Hand and foot are (terms of) praise in relation to us; in relation to the holiness of God they are pollution.

He (the shepherd) said: "O Moses, you have closed my mouth and you have burned my soul with repentance."

He rent his garment and heaved a sigh, and hastily turned his head towards the desert and went (his way).

A revelation came to Moses from God. "You have parted My servant from Me.

Did you come (as a prophet) to unite, or did you come to sever. So far as you can't, do not set foot in separation: of (all) things the most hateful to Me is divorce.

I have bestowed on every one a (special) way of eating. I have given to every one a (peculiar) form of expression.

In regard to him it is (worthy of) praise, and in regard to you it is (worthy of) blame. In regard to him honey and in regard to you poison.

I am independent of all purity and impurity, of all slothfulness and alacrity (in worshipping Me).

For the Hindus the idiom of Hind (India) are praiseworthy; for the Sindians the

Idiom of Sind is praiseworthy.

I am not sanctified by their glorification (of Me); it is they that become sanctified and pearl-scattering (pure and radiant).

I look not at the tongue and the speech; I look at the inward (spirit) and the state (of feeling).

I gaze into the heart (to see) whether it be lowly, though the words uttered be not lowly.

To lovers there is a burning (which consumes them) at every moment: tax and tithe are not (imposed) on a ruined village.

If he (the lover) speaks faulty, do not call him faulty: and if he be bathed in blood, do not wash (those who are) martyrs."

When Moses heard these reproaches from God, he ran into the desert in quest of the shepherd. (Mathnawî, H/t737-95)

With the above story Mawlânâ makes us remember the following Prophetic saying: "Make things (for people) easy, not difficult. Announce them good tidings, do not cause them hate; and assist them in everything." With thc above story, he also tries to draw our attention to the necessity of conforming with religious principles. He emphasizes the fact that we must never leave aside the understanding of love, hope and tolerance while we are calling others' attention to the religious principles. In his opinion, what matters in worshipping is not form or words but deep conviction and sincerity. He likens the blind imitators in worshipping to "the ass which carries the Qur'an for the sake of (being fed with) straw", and their being professional mourner to "the cart that moans (crcaks)." (Mathnawî, II/501-06)

He again likens those who perform high acts and deeds of devotion (in form), but whose spirits never prostrate, to walnuts without kernels:

"His devotions are good (in form) but, the spirit is not good: the walnuts are plenty but there is no kernel within.

Spiritual savour is required, in order that devotions may yield fruit, a kernel is required, in order that the berry may produce a tree." (Mathnawî. II/3432)

So, one of the characteristics of worshipping is its being a touchstone that separates the true believer (mu'min) from the hypocrite (munâfiq):

"Observe both believer and hypocrite in their prayer. This one (the holy man) acts by the command (of God), and he (the apish imilator) for the sake of quarrelling (rivalry).

In prayer and fasting and pilgrimage and alms-giving the true believers are (engaged) with the hypocrite in (what brings) victory and defeat.

Victory in the end into the true believers; upon the hypocrite (falls) defeat in the state hereafter." (Mathnawî, 1/296-98)

"The hypocrite puts musk on his body and puts his spirit at the bottom of the ash-pit.

In relation to him praising God is (like) the herbage of the ashpit:  it is roses and lilies (growing) upon a dunghill." (Mathnawî, II/269-73)

Although Mawlânâ stressed upon the fact that all prayers should be performed, the daily prayer was the most important one which he stressed upon. The daily prayer, which is the Ascension (Mi'râj) of the true believer is the first stage in the way to reach God:

"For him that gives thanks increase is promised, just as closeness (unto God) is the reward for prostration (in the ritual prayer).

Our God has said, 'And prostrate yourself and come nigh (unto Me)' (The Qur'an: 96/19): the prostration of our bodies is the closeness of the spirit (unto God)." (Mathnawî, IV/II-12)

"The Prophet has said that axis of genuflexion and prostration (in the ritual prayer) are (equivalant to) knocking the door-bell of (mystical) attainment on the Divine Portal.

When any one continues to knock that door-bell, felicity peeps out for his sake." (Mathnawî, V/2056-57).

The most precious reward of worshippings is to gain God's forsake, and to get closer to Him. However, God's grace and benevolence are very great. He recompenses those who worship.

"When a man has sown a prostration (in prayer) or a genuflexion, in yonder world his prostration becomes Paradise.

When altruism and almsgiving have grown up (proceeded) from your hand, (the act of) this (generous) hand becomes on yonder side (in the world hereafter) date-palms and (fresh) herbage.

Your patience is a river in Paradise; love is like a fountain of milk here.

Delight in devotion is a river of honey; behold your (spiritual) intoxication and longing as a river of wine." (Mathnawî, II1/3749-84)

Just as the world itself, every worldly affair
- Sahsima ozel mesaj atmadan once Yonetim Hiyerarsisini izleyerek ilgili yoneticiler ile gorusunuz.
- Masonluk hakkinda ozel mesaj ile bilgi, yardim ve destek sunulmamaktadir.
- Sorunuz ve mesajiniz hangi konuda ise o konudan sorumlu gorevli yada yonetici ile gorusunuz. Sahsim, butun cabalarinizdan sonra gorusmeniz gereken en son kisi olmalidir.
- Sadece hicbir yoneticinin cozemedigi yada forumda asla yazamayacaginiz cok ozel ve onemli konularda sahsima basvurmalisiniz.
- Masonluk ve Masonlar hakkinda bilgi almak ve en onemlisi kisisel yardim konularinda tarafima dogrudan ozel mesaj gonderenler cezalandirilacaktir. Bu konular hakkinda gerekli aciklama forum kurallari ve uyelik sozlesmesinde yeterince acik belirtilmsitir.