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Gönderen Konu: Political opposition  (Okunma sayısı 2881 defa)

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Eylül 27, 2006, 04:34:18 öö
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Political opposition
Perhaps influenced by the assertion of Masons that many political figures in the past 300 years have been Masons, Freemasonry has long been the target of conspiracy theories, which see it as an occult and evil power. Often associated with the New World Order and other "agents", such as the Illuminati, the fraternity is seen, by conspiracy theorists, as either bent on world domination, or already secretly in control of world politics.

In 1799 English Freemasonry almost came to a halt due to Parliamentary proclamation. In the wake of the French Revolution, the Unlawful Societies Act, 1799 banned any meetings of groups that required their members to take an oath or obligation.[48] The Grand Masters of both the Moderns and the Antients Grand Lodges called on the Prime Minister William Pitt, (who was not a Freemason) and explained to him that Freemasonry was a supporter of the law and lawfully constituted authority and was much involved in charitable work. As a result Freemasonry was specifically exempted from the terms of the Act, provided that each Private Lodge's Secretary placed with the local "Clerk of the Peace" a list of the members of his Lodge—once a year.[48] This continued until 1967 when the obligation of the provision was rescinded by Parliament.[48] Regular Freemasonry inserted into its core ritual a formal obligation: to be quiet and peaceable citizens, true to the lawful government of the country in which they live, and not to countenance disloyalty or rebellion.[22] A Freemason makes a further obligation, before being made Master of his Lodge, to pay a proper respect to the civil magistrates.[22] The words may be varied across Grand Lodges, but the sense in the obligation taken is always there in regular Freemasonry.

Freemasonry in America faced political pressure and almost died, following the disappearance of anti-Masonic agitator William Morgan in 1826. Claims were made that he had been kidnapped and killed by rogue Freemasons. No one was brought to trial over the murder claims, after Morgan's disappearance.[49] Reportage of the "Morgan Affair" helped fuel an Anti-Masonic movement, culminating in the formation of a political Anti-Masonic Party. This Party fielded candidates for the Presidential elections of 1828 and 1832. In the latter election, it managed to have Millard Fillmore elected to Congress, but their Presidential candidate received only seven votes in the Electoral College. He was defeated by a Freemason, Andrew Jackson.

In modern democracies, Freemasonry is still sometimes accused of being a network, where individuals become Freemasons through patrimony, engage in 'cronyism', and where political influence and illegal business dealings take place. This is officially and explicitly deplored.[22] An individual must ask freely and without persuasion to become a Freemason in order to join the fraternity.[22]

In Italy, Freemasonry has become linked to a scandal concerning the Propaganda Due Lodge (aka P2). This Lodge had been Chartered by the Grande Oriente d'Italia in 1877, as a Lodge for visiting Masons unable to attend their own lodges. In the mid 1960s the Lodge only had 14 permanent members, but when Licio Gelli took over as Master in the 1960s and 1970s, he rapidly expanded the membership. Under Gelli's leadership the P2 Lodge became involved in the financial scandals that nearly bankrupted the Vatican Bank in the late 1970s. However, by this time the lodge was operating independently and irregularly, as the Grand Lodge d'Italia had revoked its charter in 1974 (this revocation became effective in 1976). In 1981 the Lodge was investigated by Italian authorities. By 1982 the scandal became public knowledge and Gelli was formally expelled from Freemasonry. In addition to involvement in financial misdealings, there are some who suspect P2 of involvement in murders, including that of the head of Banco Ambrosiano, Roberto Calvi, who was found hanging under Blackfriars Bridge in London, England.

The UK Labour government, in the late 1990s and early 2000s, attempted to require all members of fraternal organisations who are public officials to make their affiliation public.[50][51] This was challenged under European human rights legislation, and the government in enacting the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law,[52] had to curtail the scope of their requirements.[53] Arrangements for the declaration of freemasonry membership have been established for the current Lay Magistracy, Judiciary, and voluntary registration was introduced in 1999 for the Police Service.[54] No central register of freemasonry membership is held, and it is not possible to estimate the number of members who did not declare their interest.

Decisions on whether information should be released are the responsibility of the public authority receiving the request, on a case-by-case basis, acting in accordance with the principles of the Freedom of Information Act, 2000.[55]

- Sahsima ozel mesaj atmadan once Yonetim Hiyerarsisini izleyerek ilgili yoneticiler ile gorusunuz.
- Masonluk hakkinda ozel mesaj ile bilgi, yardim ve destek sunulmamaktadir.
- Sorunuz ve mesajiniz hangi konuda ise o konudan sorumlu gorevli yada yonetici ile gorusunuz. Sahsim, butun cabalarinizdan sonra gorusmeniz gereken en son kisi olmalidir.
- Sadece hicbir yoneticinin cozemedigi yada forumda asla yazamayacaginiz cok ozel ve onemli konularda sahsima basvurmalisiniz.
- Masonluk ve Masonlar hakkinda bilgi almak ve en onemlisi kisisel yardim konularinda tarafima dogrudan ozel mesaj gonderenler cezalandirilacaktir. Bu konular hakkinda gerekli aciklama forum kurallari ve uyelik sozlesmesinde yeterince acik belirtilmsitir.

Eylül 14, 2008, 02:15:46 ös
Yanıtla #1

right points in my opinion!
thanks master...
Bilgi , en kutsal güçtür !