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Gönderen Konu: THE ANDERSON STORY - 2  (Okunma sayısı 5009 defa)

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Aralık 09, 2009, 09:42:50 ÖÖ
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The Constitutions of 1723

In certain masonic literature, the original constitutions of Speculative Freemasonry that was put in force in 1723 are referred to as “Anderson’s Constitutions”.

The reason of such a referral has nothing to do with the labour performed by James Anderson in the preparation of the constitutions. The importance of his contribution cannot be denied. Furthermore, the “historical section” in this book was narrated entirely by him. Nevertheless, his name appears in only one place in the book of 1723 where the names the masters and wardens of all lodges are listed. It is observed that a phrase has been added here adjacent to his name as “the writer of this book”. In fact, he tried to emphasise in a number of places that he wrote this book all by himself.

In the stage of submitting the proposal of the constitutions to the general assembly of the Grand Lodge of London, Anderson undersigned this together with the members of the committee that worked on it. During this submission, he undertook the task of acting as the reporter and defended the proposal. After being put in force, we observe that he considers possession on the constitutions by claiming that it is a work of his own. At that time, this was either not noticed or ignored by oversight.

It is quite probable that the attitude of Anderson in this respect may have emanated purely from a personal issue. In 1722 the Junior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of London didn’t attend to his office at all. James Anderson constantly substituted him in the meetings. However, nobody supported him in being directly elected to this post, nor did anybody nominate him to be a grand warden of the grand lodge.

Not being able to attract the appreciation of the brethren constituting the general assembly, he provided a self-satisfaction by this manner.

Whereas, we see at quite later times that Anderson’s anxiety on those dates was in vain. Because, he acquired to be “the person that had his name pronounced the most” throughout the history of Freemasonry.

Another motive in regarding these constitutions as “Anderson’s Constitutions” is to highlight that they actually are invalid in general by proclaiming that they have been produced only by Anderson.

As soon as the constitutions were put in force, religious institutions as well as the lodges that maintain being purely operative started to object. Required defence against clergymen in particular was again a matter that had to be carried out by Anderson being a priest in the past.

Anderson performed this duty as best as he could, however, he believed that certain parts of these constitutions have to be modified anyhow. In this context, by a struggle that continued for many years, he finally succeeded in providing agreement on certain alterations. When he was having the new book printed after the changes were made in 1738, he made his name written clearly on the front cover as the “author”.

Hence, referring to the constitutions of 1738 as “Anderson’s Constitutions” may not be so wrong. However, according to their own approach, some masonic institutions preferred to include the constitutions of 1723 in this definition as well.

Therefore, it is necessary to give credit to those opinions asserting that making reference to the constitutions of 1723 as Anderson’s Constitutions is wrong.

In those opinions, it is stated that the real Constitutions of Anderson are those dated 1738, and the original constitutions of 1723 cannot be named as Anderson’s Constitutions.

Those that support this thesis assert that the purpose behind referring to the original constitutions of 1723 as Anderson’s Constitutions is a search by the United Grand Lodge of England in influencing the liberal wing of Freemasonry that could not be taken under its own authority.

This opinion is worth to consider. It is exposed to the evaluation of masonic researchers.

These make it apparent why James Anderson was that person having his name pronounced the most for so many years in Speculative Freemasonry

The Constitutions of 1738

When the Grand Lodge of London altered its name to Grand Lodge of England in 1725, it was obvious that this activity was not confined to London. Both the solely operative lodges and the extreme conservatives that were only verbally protesting the movement until then, this time started a campaign of assault against Freemasonry.

These attacks could have been considered as unimportant, but they were provoking other antimasonic inclinations in England. The support given by the Church of England was causing quite discomfort to the Grand Lodge.

The Church of England was not against Freemasonry being different in character. Nor was it interested in its institutional features. However it was not pleased with the contents of the constitutions at all, and was asserting that certain expressions in this text clearly contradict religious principles.

In addition to the above-mentioned charge of defence, it was again Anderson that was applied for a solution to this situation. Anderson was asked in 1735 to review the constitutions all over again.

This time, studies of Anderson took quite long. It may be thought that discussions were held on his preparation and could not be easily concluded, but this may not be more than an assumption. On those days, minutes of meetings in the Grand Lodge of England were being kept regularly. In these minutes, nothing is mentioned concerning a proposal for the alteration of the constitutions or any discussions made in this respect. Hence, either Anderson was not able to work as rapidly as in the former days due to being indisposed or he was coming across with serious criticisms and even oppositions upon explaining his views in meetings that didn’t require any minutes.

We know that all proposals put forward by Anderson were not agreed, and certain alterations were made. We further know that the new constitutions were approved in a meeting of the general assembly in 1738. Finally, Anderson provided printing of the “New Book of Constitutions”.

In appearance, this book as regards its contents was not much different from to the original constitutions of 1723. The historical part was corrected at places but all errors couldn’t be avoided.
Descriptions concerning the meetings of the general assembly in the Grand Lodge of London that weren’t previously recorded have been added.

In the meantime, Anderson was raising complaints against the speculative freemasons in the Continent, and accusing them by ingratitude. Despite he didn’t explain his reasoning, it was clear that he was remonstrating the freemasons in France who made attempts peculiar to themselves. As a matter of fact, while persevering to agree only to the constitutions of 1723, the freemasons in the Continent have started to amend Speculative Freemasonry as fitting to them and were creating some higher degrees. One of the consequences of such ventures turned out to be banning of Freemasonry by the Roman Catholic Church.

Since the Grand Lodge of England was regarding itself as the “Leader of Freemasonry”, it was deeming that elimination of all movements that were developing against Freemasonry should be performed by itself. For this purpose, necessary alterations should have been made on the constitutions. The first obligation was the most important among all.

Alterations that were thus made in the section of “Obligations” in the constitutions were giving an impression as if constituting of minor details in appearance, but these were very important in sense. The degree of “master mason” that was out of question in 1723 was added to the constitutions in this book, and other subsequent corrections were made as well. On the other hand, in this book Anderson made a brief description concerning the conclusions of the general assembly meetings during 1717-1723 that didn’t have any minutes.

Then, arguments started on whether the original constitutions of 1723 or the new constitutions put in force in 1738 shall be valid in England.

It may be thought that such an argument should never be made, because the new one upon being approved by the general assembly substitutes the previous. However, similar to oppositions against the constitutions of 1723, there were ones opposing to the alterations.

Nevertheless, we have to know that these apply only to England. Lodges in the Continent were continuing on with recognizing the original constitutions of 1723.

As a matter of fact, towards the middle of 18th century, it was observed in England that the lodges started to make changes in practice at places. Of course the disagreement on the matter as which constitution is the one to be observed had an influence on this deviation, but this was not the only reason.

Each of many lodges was wishing to apply rules and schemes preferred by itself just by disregarding the existence of an obedience that it was connected to. Vastly deviating procedures were applied in constituting new lodges, initiation of candidates, conferring degrees, election of officers, and business in lodge meetings.

Lodges in a discord were regarding only those that are similar to them as being “regular”, and were accusing others as irregular bodies and simultaneously giving harm to Freemasonry.

The Grand Lodge of England was unable to put the lodges in due order, and was incapable in eliminating the contradictions in approach.

As a result, a separation occurred in Freemasonry in England. Then an era of devising constitutions that again were similar in appearance but in fact different from each other started.

In the second half of 18th century, separations in the Continent exhibited greater dimensions than in England.

Anderson could see none of these. His mission was over by the printing of the New Book of Constitutions in 1738.

James Anderson died in 1739.

Persons attended his funeral could be counted by fingers.

Whatever he did during his life, he was unable in attracting the love of his brethren.

However, his name was always pronounced in Freemasonry; he was never forgotten, and was commemorated by respect.

Nevertheless, this fact doesn’t avoid the error made in referring any constitution in Freemasonry as “Anderson’s Constitutions”.

Constitutions aren’t relevant to persons, but to institutions.





Forumdaki dostlara bir soru: Bunun Türkçesini de yazalım mı?




ADAM OLMAK ZOR İŞ AMA BUNUN İÇİN ÇALIŞMAYA DEĞER.


Ağustos 26, 2010, 10:09:23 ÖS
Yanıtla #1
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I believe you should.
- Sahsima ozel mesaj atmadan once Yonetim Hiyerarsisini izleyerek ilgili yoneticiler ile gorusunuz.
- Masonluk hakkinda ozel mesaj ile bilgi, yardim ve destek sunulmamaktadir.
- Sorunuz ve mesajiniz hangi konuda ise o konudan sorumlu gorevli yada yonetici ile gorusunuz. Sahsim, butun cabalarinizdan sonra gorusmeniz gereken en son kisi olmalidir.
- Sadece hicbir yoneticinin cozemedigi yada forumda asla yazamayacaginiz cok ozel ve onemli konularda sahsima basvurmalisiniz.
- Masonluk ve Masonlar hakkinda bilgi almak ve en onemlisi kisisel yardim konularinda tarafima dogrudan ozel mesaj gonderenler cezalandirilacaktir. Bu konular hakkinda gerekli aciklama forum kurallari ve uyelik sozlesmesinde yeterince acik belirtilmsitir.


Ağustos 27, 2010, 09:25:14 ÖÖ
Yanıtla #2
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Many thanks. However, I've already done that . Ref: "Anderson Öyküsü"
ADAM OLMAK ZOR İŞ AMA BUNUN İÇİN ÇALIŞMAYA DEĞER.


Ağustos 27, 2010, 10:43:22 ÖÖ
Yanıtla #3
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It`s hard to keep up with your articles. Thank you.
- Sahsima ozel mesaj atmadan once Yonetim Hiyerarsisini izleyerek ilgili yoneticiler ile gorusunuz.
- Masonluk hakkinda ozel mesaj ile bilgi, yardim ve destek sunulmamaktadir.
- Sorunuz ve mesajiniz hangi konuda ise o konudan sorumlu gorevli yada yonetici ile gorusunuz. Sahsim, butun cabalarinizdan sonra gorusmeniz gereken en son kisi olmalidir.
- Sadece hicbir yoneticinin cozemedigi yada forumda asla yazamayacaginiz cok ozel ve onemli konularda sahsima basvurmalisiniz.
- Masonluk ve Masonlar hakkinda bilgi almak ve en onemlisi kisisel yardim konularinda tarafima dogrudan ozel mesaj gonderenler cezalandirilacaktir. Bu konular hakkinda gerekli aciklama forum kurallari ve uyelik sozlesmesinde yeterince acik belirtilmsitir.


 

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